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SCIENTIFIC PARADIGMS

What is a research paradigm?

A paradigm can be thought as a theory or a group of ideas about how something can be done, and how it should be made or thought. It is also an approach of how a problem could be solved and may be the practice or finding that leads to a particular solution of a problem. It is the beliefs that are held by a group of people.

EPISTEMOLOGY: The word epistemology is the combination of two words that are episteme that means knowledge and logia that means study. So, it means the study of knowledge. It can be thought of as a concept in which knowledge is justified and one can justify the claim in which a person beleives. In this concept, belief should be justified by using evidence that must be reasonable and logical.

POSITIVISM: It is a phenomenon in which knowledge is obtained through direct observation and in which knowledge is justified. Positivism can also be considered as a reality and reality is real, that means truth and truth is universal that don’t need evidence or proof but we can’t direct access the truth or belief. We can approximate the proportion of truth.

INTERPRETIVISM: Interpretivism is the scientific approach which depends on individual thinking. As each and every individual person has it’s own belief so there might be different opinions of a person on a specific topic. Every single person has the ability to think differently on the same topic.

ANTI-POSITIVISM: It is the humanistic approach which don’t need any proof or evidence to prove. It is opposite to positivism. It lays stress on one’s moral and cultural approach. It includes conversation and open-ended interviews.

REALISM: Realism can be considered as the approach which is real, true and valid and universal adapted. It is the concept which exists in reality.

NOMINALISM: Nominalism is defined as the state that is has its own reality and is not even based on what is the real truth or reality.

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